Spasmodic dysphonia is difficulty speaking due to spasms (dystonia) of the muscles that control the vocal cords.
Spasmodic dysphonia usually occurs between ages 30 and 51. Women are more likely to be affected than men.
Sometimes, the condition runs in the family.
Spasmodic dysphonia is sometimes due to psychological stress. Most cases result from a problem in the brain and nervous system. The vocal cord muscles spasm. This causes the vocal cords to get too close or too far apart while a person is using the voice.
The voice is usually hoarse or grating. It may waver and pause. The voice may sound strained or strangled, and it may seem as if the speaker has to use extra effort (known as adductor dysphonia).
Sometimes, the voice is whispery or breathy (abductor dysphonia).
The problem may go away when the person laughs, whispers, speaks in a high-pitched voice, sings, or shouts.
Patients with spasmodic dysphonia should see an ear, nose, and throat doctor to check for changes in the vocal cords and other brain or nervous system problems.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) treatments may help. Botulinum toxin comes from a certain type of bacteria. Very small amounts of this toxin may be injected into the muscles around the vocal cords. This treatment will often help for 3 to 4 months.
Surgery to cut one of the nerves to the vocal cords has been used to treat spasmodic dysphonia, but it is not very effective.
Brain stimulation may be useful in some patients.