Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person.
It causes a blotchy red rash. The rash often starts on the head and moves down the body.
Getting vaccinated is a very effective way to prevent measles. People who are not immunized, or who have not received the full immunization are at high risk of catching the disease.
Taking serum immune globulin within 6 days after being exposed to the virus can reduce the risk of developing measles or make the disease less severe.
Measles is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person. Sneezing and coughing can put contaminated droplets into the air.
If one person has the measles, 90% of the people who come in contact with that person will get the measles, unless they are protected.
People who had measles or who have been vaccinated against measles are protected from the disease. Vaccination works so well that in 2000, measles had been eliminated in the United States. However, unvaccinated people who travel to other countries where measles is common have brought the disease back to the United States. This has led to recent outbreaks of measles in groups of people who are unvaccinated.
Some parents do not let their children get vaccinated. This is because of unfounded fears that the MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella, can cause autism. Parents and caregivers should know that:
Large studies of thousands of children have found no connection between this or any vaccine and autism.
Symptoms usually begin 8 to 12 days after you are exposed to the virus. This is called the incubation period.
Rash is often the main symptom. The rash:
- Usually appears 3 to 5 days after the first signs of being sick
- May last 4 to 7 days
- Usually starts on the head and spreads to other areas, moving down the body
- May appear as flat, discolored areas (macules) and solid, red, raised areas (papules) that later join together
Other symptoms may include:
- Bloodshot eyes
- Light sensitivity (photophobia)
- Muscle pain
- Redness and irritation of the eyes (conjunctivitis)
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik's spots)
Those who do not have complications such as pneumonia do very well.
There is no specific treatment for the measles.
The following may relieve symptoms:
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
- Bed rest
- Humidified air
Some children may need vitamin A supplements, which reduce the risk of death and complications in children who do not get enough vitamin A.