In this kind of operation, the enlarged hemorrhoids are removed (“ectomy” means “removal”) using instruments like scissors, a scalpel or a laser. In some approaches the wound is left open afterwards, in others it is partially or completely closed with stitches. Leaving the wound partially or completely open has the advantages of fewer stitch-related complications and fewer hematoma (bruising) problems. One disadvantage is that it takes longer for open wounds to heal.
Regardless of which operation they have, most patients experience pain in their anal region afterwards. Bowel movements and sitting can hurt as a result. These problems can usually be treated with painkillers. Other problems that may arise include bleeding after the operation, wound infections, abscesses, narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and — rarely — fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements.