Swimmer's ear is inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal.
The medical term for swimmer's ear is otitis externa.
Swimmer's ear may be acute or chronic.
These steps can help protect your ears from further damage.
- Do not scratch the ears or insert cotton swabs or other objects in the ears.
- Keep ears clean and dry, and do not let water enter the ears when showering, shampooing, or bathing.
- Dry your ear very well after it has gotten wet.
- Avoid swimming in polluted water.
- Use earplugs when swimming.
- Try mixing 1 drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after they get wet. The alcohol and acid in the vinegar help prevent bacterial growth.
Swimmer's ear is more common among teenagers and young adults. It may occur with a middle ear infection or a respiratory infection such as a cold.
Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. Pseudomonas and other bacteria commonly often found in water can cause ear infections. Rarely, the infection may be caused by a fungus.
Other causes of swimmer's ear include:
- Scratching the ear or inside the ear
- Getting something stuck in the ear
Trying to clean wax from the ear canal with cotton swabs or small objects can damage the skin.
Long-term (chronic) swimmer's ear may be due to:
- Allergic reaction to something placed in the ear
- Chronic skin conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis
Symptoms of swimmer's ear include:
- Drainage from the ear -- yellow, yellow-green, pus-like, or foul smelling
- Ear pain, which may get worse when you pull on the outer ear
- Hearing loss
- Itching of the ear or ear canal
Swimmer's ear most often gets better with the proper treatment.
In most cases, you will need to use ear drops containing antibiotics for 10 to 14 days. If the ear canal is very swollen, a wick may be put into the ear to allow the drops to travel to the end of the canal. Your doctor or nurse can show you how to do this.
Other treatments may include:
- Antibiotics taken by mouth if you have a middle ear infection or infection that spreads beyond the ear
- Corticosteroids to reduce itching and inflammation
- Pain medication, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
- Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops
People with chronic swimmer's ear may need long-term or repeated treatments to avoid complications.
Placing something warm against the ear may reduce pain.