Vascular Medicine

Hypercoagulable Disorders

Normally, if you get hurt, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding. Some people get too many clots or their blood clots abnormally. Many conditions can cause the blood to clot too much or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly.Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking Blood clots can form in, or travel to, the blood vessels in the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and limbs. A clot in the veins deep in the limbs is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT usually affects the deep veins of the legs. If a blood clot in a deep vein breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs and blocks blood flow, the condition is called pulmonary embolism. Other complications of blood clots include stroke, heart attack, kidney problems and kidney failure, and pregnancy-related problems. Treatments for blood clots include blood thinners and other medicines.  

Venous

The vascular system is the body's network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart. Problems of the vascular system are common and can be serious. Arteries can become thick and stiff, a problem called atherosclerosis. Blood clots can clog vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. Weakened blood vessels can burst, causing bleeding inside the body. You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. Other factors that make vascular disease more likely include Family history of vascular or heart diseases Pregnancy Illness or injury Long periods of sitting or standing still Any condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.  

Arterial

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Lymphatic

The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs. It is made up of Lymph - a fluid that contains white blood cells that defend against germs Lymph vessels - vessels that carry lymph throughout your body. They are different from blood vessels. Lymph nodes - glands found throughout the lymph vessels. Along with your spleen, these nodes are where white blood cells fight infection. Your bone marrow and thymus produce the cells in lymph. They are part of the system, too. The lymphatic system clears away infection and keeps your body fluids in balance. If it's not working properly, fluid builds in your tissues and causes swelling, called lymphedema. Other lymphatic system problems can include infections, blockage, and cancer.

Vascular Diseases

The vascular system is the body's network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart. Problems of the vascular system are common and can be serious. Arteries can become thick and stiff, a problem called atherosclerosis. Blood clots can clog vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. Weakened blood vessels can burst, causing bleeding inside the body. You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. Other factors that make vascular disease more likely include Family history of vascular or heart diseases Pregnancy Illness or injury Long periods of sitting or standing still Any condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.  

Pulmonary Embolism

The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung.  Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent damage to the affected lung Low oxygen levels in your blood Damage to other organs in your body from not getting enough oxygen If a clot is large, or if there are many clots, pulmonary embolism can cause death. Half the people who have pulmonary embolism have no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they can include shortness of breath, chest pain or coughing up blood. Symptoms of a blood clot include warmth, swelling, pain, tenderness and redness of the leg. The goal of treatment is to break up clots and help keep other clots from forming.

Lymphedema

It happens when lymph builds up in your body's soft tissues. 

Fibromuscular Dysplasia

Arteries within the brain and kidneys can also be affected. A characteristic “string of beads” pattern caused by the alternating narrowing and enlarging of the artery can block or reduce blood flow to the brain, causing a stroke or mini-stroke. Some patients experience no symptoms of the disease while others may have high blood pressure, dizziness or vertigo, chronic headache, intracranial aneurysm, ringing in the ears, weakness or numbness in the face, neck pain, or changes in vision. FMD is most often seen in persons age 25 to 50 years and affects women more often than men. More than one family member may be affected by the disease. The cause of FMD is unknown. An angiogram can detect the degree of narrowing or obstruction of the artery and identify changes such as a tear (dissection) or weak area (aneurysm) in the vessel wall. FMD can also be diagnosed using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound.

Raynaud's Disease

 It causes the blood vessels to narrow when you are cold or feeling stressed.  When this happens, blood can't get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death. Primary Raynaud's happens on its own. The cause is not known. There is also secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are more likely to develop Raynaud's. It is also more common in women, people with a family history, and those over age 30. Treatment for Raynaud's may include drugs to keep the blood vessels open. There are also simple things you can do yourself, such as Soaking hands in warm water at the first sign of an attack Keeping your hands and feet warm in cold weather Avoiding triggers, such as certain medicines and stress  

Venous Ulcer

Blood backs up in the veins, building up pressure. If not treated, increased pressure and excess fluid can cause an open sore to form. Most venous ulcers occur on the leg, above the ankle. This type of wound can be slow to heal.