Tendons are flexible bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones.
Tendons are flexible bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. They help your muscles move your bones. Tendinitis is the severe swelling of a tendon.
Tendinitis usually happens after repeated injury to an area such as the wrist or ankle. It causes pain and soreness around a joint. Some common forms of tendinitis are named after the sports that increase their risk. They include tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, pitcher's shoulder, swimmer's shoulder, and jumper's knee.
Doctors diagnose tendinitis with your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. The first step in treatment is to reduce pain and swelling. Rest, wrapping or elevating the affected area, and medicines can help. Ice is helpful for recent, severe injuries. Other treatments include ultrasound, physical therapy, steroid injections, and surgery.
Call your health care provider if:
- You have pain in the heel around the Achilles tendon that is worse with activity.
- You have sharp pain and are unable to walk without extreme pain or weakness.
Exercises to keep your calf muscles strong and flexible will help reduce the risk of tendinitis. Overusing a weak or tight Achilles tendon makes you more likely to develop tendinitis.
There are two large muscles in the calf. These create the power needed to push off with the foot or go up on the toes. The large Achilles tendon connects these muscles to the heel.
Heel pain is most often due to overuse of the foot. Rarely, it is caused by an injury.
Tendinitis due to overuse is most common in younger people. It can occur in walkers, runners, or other athletes.
Achilles tendinitis may be more likely to occur if:
- There is a sudden increase in the amount or intensity of an activity.
- Your calf muscles are very tight (not stretched out).
- You run on hard surfaces, such as concrete.
- You run too often.
- You jump a lot (such as when playing basketball).
- You do not wear shoes that give your feet proper support.
- Your foot suddenly turns in or out.
Tendinitis from arthritis is more common in middle-aged and older adults. A bone spur or growth may form in the back of the heel bone. This may irritate the Achilles tendon and cause pain and swelling. Flat feet will put more tension on the tendon.
Symptoms include pain in the heel and along the length of the tendon when walking or running. The area may feel painful and stiff in the morning.
The tendon may be painful to touch or move. The area may be swollen and warm. You may have trouble standing up on one toe.
The health care professional will perform a physical exam. They will look for tenderness along the tendon and pain in the area of the tendon when you stand on your toes.
X-rays can help diagnose bone problems.
An MRI scan may be done if you are considering surgery or there is a chance that you have a tear in the Achilles tendon.
The main treatments for Achilles tendinitis do not involve surgery. It is important to remember that it may take at least 2 to 3 months for the pain to go away.
Try putting ice on the Achilles tendon area for 15 to 20 minutes, two to three times per day. Remove the ice if the area gets numb.
Changes in activity may help manage the symptoms:
- Decrease or stop any activity that causes pain.
- Run or walk on smoother and softer surfaces.
- Switch to biking, swimming, or other activities that put less stress on the Achilles tendon.
Your health care provider or physical therapist can show you stretching exercises for the Achilles tendon.
You may also need to make changes in your footwear, such as:
- Using a brace, boot or cast to keep the heel and tendon still and allow the swelling to go down
- Placing heel lifts in the shoe under the heel
- Wearing shoes that are softer in the areas over and under the heel cushion
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, can help ease pain or swelling.
If these treatments do not improve symptoms, you may need surgery to remove inflamed tissue and abnormal areas of the tendon. If there is a bone spur irritating the tendon, surgery can be used to remove the spur.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may be an alternative to surgery for people who have not responded to other treatments. This treatment uses low-dose sound waves.
In most cases, lifestyle changes help improve symptoms. Keep in mind that symptoms may return if you do not limit activities that cause pain, or if you do not maintain the strength and flexibility of the tendon.