Vascular Health

Children and Diabetes

With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. But now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia usually is inherited. "Inherited” means that the disorder is passed from parents to children through genes. People born with hemophilia have little or no clotting factor. Clotting factor is a protein needed for normal blood clotting. There are several types of clotting factors. These proteins work with platelets (PLATE-lets) to help the blood clot. The two main types of hemophilia are A and B. If you have hemophilia A, you're missing or have low levels of clotting factor VIII (8). About 8 out of 10 people who have hemophilia have type A. If you have hemophilia B, you're missing or have low levels of clotting factor IX (9). Rarely, hemophilia can be acquired. This can happen if your body forms antibodies (proteins) that attack the clotting factors in your bloodstream. 

Hypotension

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure. Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually they're written one above or before the other, such as 120/80. If your blood pressure reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure all the time. They have no symptoms and their low readings are normal for them. In other people, blood pressure drops below normal because of a medical condition or certain medicines. Some people may have symptoms of low blood pressure when standing up too quickly. Low blood pressure is a problem only if it causes dizziness, fainting or in extreme cases, shock.

Brain Aneurysm

They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they are often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, begin to leak blood, or burst. If a brain aneurysm presses on nerves in your brain, it can cause signs and symptoms. These can include A droopy eyelid Double vision or other changes in vision Pain above or behind the eye A dilated pupil Numbness or weakness on one side of the face or body Treatment depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, whether it is infected, and whether it has burst. If a brain aneurysm bursts, symptoms can include a sudden, severe headache, nausea and vomiting, stiff neck, loss of consciousness, and signs of a stroke. Any of these symptoms requires immediate medical attention.  

Pulmonary Hypertension

It is a serious condition. If you have it, the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your lungs become hard and narrow.​  Your heart has to work harder to pump the blood through. Over time, your heart weakens and cannot do its job and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such as climbing two flights of stairs Tiredness Chest pain A racing heartbeat Pain on the upper right side of the abdomen Decreased appetite As PH worsens, you may find it hard to do any physical activities. There are two main kinds of PH. One runs in families or appears for no known reason. The other kind is related to another condition, usually heart or lung disease. There is no cure for PH. Treatments can control symptoms. They involve treating the heart or lung disease, medicines, oxygen, and sometimes lung transplantation.  

Peripheral Arterial Disease

The cause of PAD is atherosclerosis. This happens when plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs. Plaque is a substance made up of fat and cholesterol. It causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked. This can reduce or stop blood flow, usually to the legs. If severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death and can sometimes lead to amputation of the foot or leg. The main risk factor for PAD is smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Many people who have PAD don't have any symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include Pain, numbness, achiness, or heaviness in the leg muscles. This happens when walking or climbing stairs. Weak or absent pulses in the legs or feet Sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs that heal slowly, poorly, or not at all A pale or bluish color to the skin A lower temperature in one leg than the other leg Poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes PAD can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Doctors diagnose PAD with a physical exam and heart and imaging tests. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and sometimes surgery. Lifestyle changes include dietary changes, exercise, and efforts to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure.  

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or thigh. If the vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism. Sitting still for a long time can make you more likely to get a DVT. Some medicines and disorders that increase your risk for blood clots can also lead to DVTs. Common symptoms are Warmth and tenderness over the vein Pain or swelling in the part of the body affected Skin redness Treatment includes medicines to ease pain and inflammation, break up clots and keep new clots from forming. Keeping the affected area raised and applying moist heat can also help. If you are taking a long car or plane trip, take a break, walk or stretch your legs and drink plenty of liquids.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. The top number is called the systolic blood pressure. The bottom number is called the diastolic blood pressure. For example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mmHg). One or both of these numbers can be too high. Normal blood pressure is when your blood pressure is lower than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or above most of the time. If your blood pressure numbers are 120/80 or higher, but below 140/90, it is called pre-hypertension. If you have heart or kidney problems, or you had a stroke, your doctor may want your blood pressure to be even lower than that of people who do not have these conditions.

Carotid Artery Disease

Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are tests that can tell your doctor if you have it. If the arteries are very narrow, you may need an operation called an endarterectomy to remove the plaque. For less severe narrowing, a medicine to prevent blood clots can reduce your risk of stroke. Another option for people who can't have surgery is carotid angioplasty. This involves placing balloons and/or stents into the artery to open it and hold it open.