Urology

Renal Disease

Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. 

Incontinence

The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of your body from your bladder. You may leak urine from time to time. Or, you may not be able to hold any urine. The three main types of urinary incontinence are: Stress incontinence -- occurs during activities like coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise. Urge incontinence -- involves a strong, sudden need to urinate. Then the bladder squeezes and you lose urine. You don't have enough time after you feel the need to urinate to get to the bathroom before you do urinate. Overflow incontinence -- occurs when the bladder cannot empty. This leads to dribbling. Mixed incontinence occurs when you have more than one type of urinary incontinence. Bowel incontinence is when you are unable to control the passage of stool. It is not covered in this article. 

Prostatitis

Prostate tissue becomes inflamed. This problem can be caused by an infection with bacteria. Acute prostatitis starts quickly and chronic prostatitis lasts for 3 months or more. Ongoing irritation of the prostate that is not caused by bacteria is called chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.

urinary tract infection

The infection can occur at different points in the urinary tract, including: Bladder -- An infection in the bladder is also called cystitis or a bladder infection. Kidneys -- An infection of one or both kidneys is called pyelonephritis or a kidney infection. Ureters -- The tubes that take urine from each kidney to the bladder are rarely the only site of infection. Urethra -- An infection of the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside is called urethritis.      

Chronic Kidney Disease

You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of your blood to make urine. They also keep the body's chemical balance, help control blood pressure, and make hormones. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. It can also cause other problems that can harm your health. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. Treatment may include medicines to lower blood pressure, control blood glucose, and lower blood cholesterol. CKD can get worse over time. CKD may lead to kidney failure. The only treatment options for kidney failure are dialysis or a kidney transplantation. You can take steps to keep your kidneys healthier longer: Choose foods with less salt (sodium) Keep your blood pressure below 130/80 Keep your blood glucose in the target range, if you have diabetes

Infertility

If a woman can get pregnant but keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of having unprotected sex, about 15 percent of couples are unable to get pregnant. About a third of the time, infertility can be traced to the woman. In another third of cases, it is because of the man. The rest of the time, it is because of both partners or no cause can be found. There are treatments that are specifically for men or for women. Some involve both partners. Drugs, assisted reproductive technology, and surgery are common treatments. Happily, many couples treated for infertility go on to have babies.  

Interstitial Cystitis

It is far more common in women than in men. The symptoms vary from person to person. Some people may have pain without urgency or frequency. Others have urgency and frequency without pain. Women's symptoms often get worse during their periods. They may also have pain with sexual intercourse. The cause of Interstitial Cystitis (IC) isn't known. There is no one test to tell if you have it. Doctors often run tests to rule out other possible causes of symptoms. There is no cure for IC, but treatments can help most people feel better. They include: Distending, or inflating, the bladder Bathing the inside of the bladder with a drug solution Oral medicines Electrical nerve stimulation Physical therapy Lifestyle changes Bladder training In rare cases, surgery  

Overactive Bladder

You may have overactive bladder if you have two or more of these symptoms: You urinate eight or more times a day or two or more times at night You have the sudden, strong need to urinate immediately You leak urine after a sudden, strong urge to urinate You also may have incontinence, a loss of bladder control. Nerve problems, too much fluid, or too much caffeine can cause it. Often the cause is unknown. Your doctor may prescribe a medicine that can calm muscles and nerves. The medicine may come as a pill, a liquid, or a patch. The medicines can cause your eyes to become dry. They can also cause dry mouth and constipation. To deal with these effects, use eye drops to keep your eyes moist, chew sugarless gum or suck on sugarless hard candy if dry mouth bothers you, and take small sips of water throughout the day.  

Urinary Tract Infection

The urinary system is the body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice: Pain or burning when you urinate Fever, tiredness, or shakiness An urge to urinate often Pressure in your lower belly Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish Pain in your back or side below the ribs People of any age or sex can get UTIs. But about four times as many women get UTIs as men. You're also at higher risk if you have diabetes, need a tube to drain your bladder, or have a spinal cord injury. If you think you have a UTI it is important to see your doctor. Your doctor can tell if you have a UTI with a urine test. Treatment is with antibiotics.  

Hematuria

Two types of blood in the urine exist. Blood that can be seen in the urine is called gross hematuria. Blood that cannot be seen in the urine, except when examined with a microscope, is called microscopic hematuria.