In open hernia repair, the surgeon makes an incision in the groin, moves the hernia back into the abdomen, and reinforces the abdominal wall with stitches. Usually the surgeon also reinforces the weak area with a synthetic mesh or “screen” to provide additional support.
The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The pancreas lies between the stomach and the spine. The pancreas has two main jobs in the body: To make juices that help digest (break down) food. To make hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, that help control blood sugar levels. Both of these hormones help the body use and store the energy it gets from food.
Thyroidectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid. The procedure is often used to treat thyroid cancer.
Pancreatectomy is the removal of all or portions of the pancrease. A pancreatectomy can be total or distal: Total pancreatectomy: This operation removes the whole pancreas, part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, the common bile duct, the gallbladder, the spleen, and nearby lymph nodes. Distal pancreatectomy: Surgery to remove the body and the tail of the pancreas. The spleen may also be removed if cancer has spread to the spleen. Pancreatectomy is often used to treat pancreatic cancer.
Ostomy is an operation to create an opening (a stoma) from an area inside the body to the outside. Colostomy, ileostomy, and urostomy are types of ostomies. The surgically created opening is called a stoma. Waste and fluids from inside the body are expelled through the stoma and are usually collected in a bag covering the opening.
Pelvic exenteration is urgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, and bladder, and create stomata (openings) through which urine and stool are passed out of the body. In women, the cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed. In men, the prostate may be removed. The procedure is used to treat certain colorectal or genitourinary cancers.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease that causes inflammation and irritation in your digestive tract. Most commonly, Crohn’s affects your small intestine and the beginning of your large intestine. However, the disease can affect any part of your digestive tract, from your mouth to your anus. Learn more about your digestive system and how it works. Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis are other common types of IBD. Crohn’s disease most often begins gradually and can become worse over time. You may have periods of remission that can last for weeks or years.
The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of several layers of tissue, including mucous membrane, muscle, and connective tissue. Esophageal cancer starts on the inside lining of the esophagus and spreads outward through the other layers as it grows. The two most common forms of esophageal cancer are named for the type of cells that become malignant (cancerous): Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the esophagus. This cancer is most often found in the upper and middle part of the esophagus, but can occur anywhere along the esophagus. This is also called epidermoid carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells in the lining of the esophagus produce and release fluids such as mucus. Adenocarcinomas usually form in the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach.
In a colon resection, the surgeon removes the affected part of your colon and joins the remaining ends of your colon together. You will receive general anesthesia for this procedure. In some cases, during a colon resection, it may not be safe for the surgeon to rejoin the ends of your colon right away. In this case, the surgeon performs a temporary colostomy. Several months later, in a second surgery, the surgeon rejoins the ends of your colon and closes the opening in your abdomen.
In this procedure the upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to create a small pouch along the inner curve of the stomach. The outlet from the pouch to the rest of the stomach is restricted by a band made of special material. The band delays the emptying of food from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness.