During a laparoscopic hernia repair, the surgeon makes several small, half-inch incisions in the lower abdomen and inserts a laparoscope—a thin tube with a tiny video camera attached. The camera sends a magnified image from inside the body to a video monitor, giving the surgeon a close-up view of the hernia and surrounding tissue. While watching the monitor, the surgeon repairs the hernia using synthetic mesh or “screen.”
An inguinal hernia happens when contents of the abdomen—usually fat or part of the small intestine—bulge through a weak area in the lower abdominal wall. The abdomen is the area between the chest and the hips. The area of the lower abdominal wall is also called the inguinal or groin region. Two types of inguinal hernias are indirect inguinal hernias, which are caused by a defect in the abdominal wall that is congenital, or present at birth direct inguinal hernias, which usually occur only in male adults and are caused by a weakness in the muscles of the abdominal wall that develops over time Inguinal hernias occur at the inguinal canal in the groin region.
Fundoplication is the most common surgery for GERD. In most cases, it leads to long-term reflux control. A surgeon performs fundoplication using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a tiny video camera. During the operation, a surgeon sews the top of your stomach around your esophagus to add pressure to the lower end of your esophagus and reduce reflux. The surgeon performs the operation at a hospital. You receive general anesthesia and can leave the hospital in 1 to 3 days. Most people return to their usual daily activities in 2 to 3 weeks. Fundoplication may be complete or partial: Complete Fundoplication: In a complete fundoplication, called Nissen fundoplication, the gastric fundus is wrapped 360 degrees around the esophagus. Partial Fundoplication: In a partial fundoplication, the gastric fundus is only partially wrapped around the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) happens when your stomach contents come back up into your esophagus. Stomach acid that touches the lining of your esophagus can cause heartburn, also called acid indigestion. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a more serious and long-lasting form of GER. Without treatment, GERD can sometimes cause serious complications over time, such as Esophagitis: Esophagitis is inflammation in the esophagus. Adults who have chronic esophagitis over many years are more likely to develop precancerous changes in the esophagus. Esophageal stricture: An esophageal stricture happens when your esophagus becomes too narrow. Esophageal strictures can lead to problems with swallowing. Respiratory problems: With GERD you might breathe stomach acid into your lungs. The stomach acid can then irritate your throat and lungs, causing respiratory problems, such as: asthma —a long-lasting disease in your lungs that makes you extra sensitive to things that you’re allergic to chest congestion, or extra fluid in your lungs a dry, long-lasting cough or a sore throat hoarseness—the partial loss of your voice laryngitis—the swelling of your voice box that can lead to a short-term loss of your voice pneumonia—an infection in one or both of your lungs—that keeps coming back wheezing—a high-pitched whistling sound when you breathe Barrett’s esophagus: GERD can sometimes cause Barrett’s esophagus. A small number of people with Barrett’s esophagus develop a rare yet often deadly type of cancer of the esophagus.
In this kind of operation, the enlarged hemorrhoids are removed ("ectomy" means "removal") using instruments like scissors, a scalpel or a laser. In some approaches the wound is left open afterwards, in others it is partially or completely closed with stitches. Leaving the wound partially or completely open has the advantages of fewer stitch-related complications and fewer hematoma (bruising) problems. One disadvantage is that it takes longer for open wounds to heal. Regardless of which operation they have, most patients experience pain in their anal region afterwards. Bowel movements and sitting can hurt as a result. These problems can usually be treated with painkillers. Other problems that may arise include bleeding after the operation, wound infections, abscesses, narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and — rarely — fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements.
The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus, a thin piece of tissue, connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. The thyroid uses iodine, a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, to help make several hormones. Thyroid hormones do the following: Control heart rate, body temperature, and how quickly food is changed into energy (metabolism). Control the amount of calcium in the blood.
Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone). PTH helps the body use and store calcium to keep the calcium in the blood at normal levels. A parathyroid gland may become overactive and make too much PTH, a condition called hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism can occur when a benign tumor (noncancer), called an adenoma, forms on one of the parathyroid glands, and causes it to grow and become overactive. Sometimes hyperparathyroidism can be caused by parathyroid cancer, but this is very rare. The extra PTH causes: The calcium stored in the bones to move into the blood The intestines to absorb more calcium from the food we eat This condition is called hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood). The hypercalcemia caused by hyperparathyroidism is more serious and life-threatening than parathyroid cancer itself and treating hypercalcemia is as important as treating the cancer.
The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The pancreas lies between the stomach and the spine. The pancreas has two main jobs in the body: To make juices that help digest (break down) food. To make hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, that help control blood sugar levels. Both of these hormones help the body use and store the energy it gets from food.
The small intestine is part of the body’s digestive system, which also includes the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The small intestine is a long tube that connects the stomach to the large intestine. It folds many times to fit inside the abdomen.
A lobectomy is surgery to remove an entire lobe, or section, of an organ. Lobectomies are often performed on the lungs, liver, brain, or thyroid gland to treat disease, such as cancer.