Fractures

Tendinitis

Tendons are flexible bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. They help your muscles move your bones. Tendinitis is the severe swelling of a tendon. Tendinitis usually happens after repeated injury to an area such as the wrist or ankle. It causes pain and soreness around a joint. Some common forms of tendinitis are named after the sports that increase their risk. They include tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, pitcher's shoulder, swimmer's shoulder, and jumper's knee. Doctors diagnose tendinitis with your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. The first step in treatment is to reduce pain and swelling. Rest, wrapping or elevating the affected area, and medicines can help. Ice is helpful for recent, severe injuries. Other treatments include ultrasound, physical therapy, steroid injections, and surgery.

Wrist Injuries and Disorders

Your wrist is made up of eight small bones known as carpals. They support a tube that runs through your wrist. That tube, called the carpal tunnel, has tendons and a nerve inside. It is covered by a ligament, which holds it in place. Wrist pain is common. Repetitive motion can damage your wrist. Everyday activities like typing, racquet sports or sewing can cause pain, or even carpal tunnel syndrome. Wrist pain with bruising and swelling can be a sign of injury. The signs of a possible fracture include misshapen joints and inability to move your wrist. Some wrist fractures are a result of osteoporosis. Other common causes of pain are Sprains and strains Tendinitis Arthritis Gout and pseudogout

Walking Problems

We walk thousands of steps each day. We walk to do our daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. The pattern of how you walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to problems with walking. These include: Injuries, diseases, or abnormal development of the muscles or bones of your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

Tailbone Disorders

The tailbone is the small bone at the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. You rarely break your tailbone. Instead, most injuries cause bruises or pulled ligaments. A backward fall onto a hard surface, such as slipping on ice, is the most common cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon sitting, pain or numbness in the arms or legs due to pressure on nerves in the tailbone area, and a mass or growth you can see or feel.

Finger Injuries and Disorders

You use your fingers and thumbs to do everything from grasping objects to playing musical instruments to typing. When there is something wrong with them, it can make life difficult. Common problems include Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations Osteoarthritis - wear-and-tear arthritis. It can also cause deformity. Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Dupuytren's contracture - a hereditary thickening of the tough tissue that lies just below the skin of your palm. It causes the fingers to stiffen and bend. Trigger finger - an irritation of the sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons. It can cause the tendon to catch and release like a trigger.

Foot Health

Each step you take involves a complex network of bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. This, combined with all of the weight they carry, explains why feet can have problems. To keep your feet healthy: Examine your feet regularly Wear comfortable shoes that fit Wash your feet daily with soap and lukewarm water Trim your toenails straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling or numbness could be a sign of diabetes. Swelling might indicate kidney disease, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Good foot care and regular foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure to talk to your doctor.

Sciatica

Sciatica is a symptom of a problem with the sciatic nerve, the largest nerve in the body. It controls muscles in the back of your knee and lower leg and provides feeling to the back of your thigh, part of your lower leg, and the sole of your foot. When you have sciatica, you have pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling. It can start in the lower back and extend down your leg to your calf, foot, or even your toes. It's usually on only one side of your body. Causes of sciatica include A ruptured intervertebral disk Narrowing of the spinal canal that puts pressure on the nerve, called spinal stenosis An injury such as a pelvic fracture. In many cases no cause can be found. Sometimes sciatica goes away on its own. Treatment, if needed, depends on the cause of the problem. It may include exercises, medicines, and surgery.

Jaw Injuries and Disorders

Your jaw is a set of bones that holds your teeth. It consists of two main parts. The upper part is the maxilla. It doesn't move. The moveable lower part is called the mandible. You move it when you talk or chew. The two halves of the mandible meet at your chin. The joint where the mandible meets your skull is the temporomandibular joint. Jaw problems include Fractures Dislocations Temporomandibular joint dysfunction Osteonecrosis, which happens when your bones lose their blood supply Cancers Treatment of jaw problems depends on the cause.

Spine Injuries and Disorders

Your backbone, or spine, is made up of 26 bone discs called vertebrae. The vertebrae protect your spinal cord and allow you to stand and bend. A number of problems can change the structure of the spine or damage the vertebrae and surrounding tissue. They include Infections Injuries Tumors Conditions, such as ankylosing spondylitis and scoliosis Bone changes that come with age, such as spinal stenosis and herniated disks Spinal diseases often cause pain when bone changes put pressure on the spinal cord or nerves. They can also limit movement. Treatments differ by disease, but sometimes they include back braces and surgery.

Neuromuscular Disorders

Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis Spinal muscular atrophy Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.