An inguinal hernia happens when contents of the abdomen—usually fat or part of the small intestine—bulge through a weak area in the lower abdominal wall. The abdomen is the area between the chest and the hips. The area of the lower abdominal wall is also called the inguinal or groin region. Two types of inguinal hernias are indirect inguinal hernias, which are caused by a defect in the abdominal wall that is congenital, or present at birth direct inguinal hernias, which usually occur only in male adults and are caused by a weakness in the muscles of the abdominal wall that develops over time Inguinal hernias occur at the inguinal canal in the groin region.
Fundoplication is the most common surgery for GERD. In most cases, it leads to long-term reflux control. A surgeon performs fundoplication using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a tiny video camera. During the operation, a surgeon sews the top of your stomach around your esophagus to add pressure to the lower end of your esophagus and reduce reflux. The surgeon performs the operation at a hospital. You receive general anesthesia and can leave the hospital in 1 to 3 days. Most people return to their usual daily activities in 2 to 3 weeks. Fundoplication may be complete or partial: Complete Fundoplication: In a complete fundoplication, called Nissen fundoplication, the gastric fundus is wrapped 360 degrees around the esophagus. Partial Fundoplication: In a partial fundoplication, the gastric fundus is only partially wrapped around the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) happens when your stomach contents come back up into your esophagus. Stomach acid that touches the lining of your esophagus can cause heartburn, also called acid indigestion. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a more serious and long-lasting form of GER. Without treatment, GERD can sometimes cause serious complications over time, such as Esophagitis: Esophagitis is inflammation in the esophagus. Adults who have chronic esophagitis over many years are more likely to develop precancerous changes in the esophagus. Esophageal stricture: An esophageal stricture happens when your esophagus becomes too narrow. Esophageal strictures can lead to problems with swallowing. Respiratory problems: With GERD you might breathe stomach acid into your lungs. The stomach acid can then irritate your throat and lungs, causing respiratory problems, such as: asthma —a long-lasting disease in your lungs that makes you extra sensitive to things that you’re allergic to chest congestion, or extra fluid in your lungs a dry, long-lasting cough or a sore throat hoarseness—the partial loss of your voice laryngitis—the swelling of your voice box that can lead to a short-term loss of your voice pneumonia—an infection in one or both of your lungs—that keeps coming back wheezing—a high-pitched whistling sound when you breathe Barrett’s esophagus: GERD can sometimes cause Barrett’s esophagus. A small number of people with Barrett’s esophagus develop a rare yet often deadly type of cancer of the esophagus.
In this kind of operation, the enlarged hemorrhoids are removed ("ectomy" means "removal") using instruments like scissors, a scalpel or a laser. In some approaches the wound is left open afterwards, in others it is partially or completely closed with stitches. Leaving the wound partially or completely open has the advantages of fewer stitch-related complications and fewer hematoma (bruising) problems. One disadvantage is that it takes longer for open wounds to heal. Regardless of which operation they have, most patients experience pain in their anal region afterwards. Bowel movements and sitting can hurt as a result. These problems can usually be treated with painkillers. Other problems that may arise include bleeding after the operation, wound infections, abscesses, narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and — rarely — fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements.
The small intestine is part of the body’s digestive system, which also includes the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The small intestine is a long tube that connects the stomach to the large intestine. It folds many times to fit inside the abdomen.
Rectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the rectum. The rectum is part of the body’s digestive system. The digestive system takes in nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. The colon (large bowel) is the first part of the large intestine and is about 5 feet long. Together, the rectum and anal canal make up the last part of the large intestine and are 6-8 inches long. The anal canal ends at the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body).
A bowel obstruction is a partial or complete block of the small or large intestine that keeps food, liquid, gas, and stool from moving through the intestines in a normal way. Most bowel obstructions occur in the small intestine.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic disease that causes inflammation and irritation in your digestive tract. Most commonly, Crohn’s affects your small intestine and the beginning of your large intestine. However, the disease can affect any part of your digestive tract, from your mouth to your anus. Learn more about your digestive system and how it works. Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis are other common types of IBD. Crohn’s disease most often begins gradually and can become worse over time. You may have periods of remission that can last for weeks or years.
Cancer of the colon is a highly treatable and often curable disease when localized to the bowel. Surgery is the primary form of treatment and results in cure in approximately 50% of the patients. Recurrence following surgery is a major problem and is often the ultimate cause of death.
A colon polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue in the lining of the bowel. Polyps are a risk factor for colon cancer.